What are trademarks?
Trademarks are letters, digits, words, images, symbols or a combination thereof, which are used by manufacturers or service providers in order to identify their goods and services to the consumers.

The registration of the mark confers upon its owner the exclusive use of the mark in relation to the products or services for which it is registered; it also serves to protect the public against deception regarding the origin of the goods/services in question.
Applications are filed to the trademarks department where they await examination according to their filing dates (as of today the waiting period is 3-4 months of receiving the application). Trademark examiners check the legitimacy of the application with accordance to the Trade Marks Ordinance [New Version] 5732-1972; the Trademark Regulation 1940 as well as with official work guidelines.
Trademarks and service-marks are initially registered for a 10 year period and must be renewed on or about the 10-year anniversary of the trademark registration. 
Other services offered by the trademarks department include: performing modifications on registered trademarks, such as transfer of ownership, recording of licenses, and modifying the owner's personal information, etc.
Examples of trademarks:
Literal element, with no element of design (standard characters) – Bezeq
Stylized words or literal elements - 
Figurative elements - Logo-

Letters or numbers- 777
 A combination of literal and figurative elements
 Alongside the traditional trademarks there are special trademarks which consist solely of colors or sounds; such trademarks will only be registered in special cases.
3d marks-   
Sounds- intel.mp3
International registration of trademarks
The registration of a trademark in Israel only provides territorial protection, and is applicable only under Israeli jurisdiction.
Today, due to the joining of Israel to the Madrid protocol, an Israeli applicant may submit a single trademark application, which can automatically apply in over 90 countries around the world. The filing is done under the "Madrid system", which is operated and managed by WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization).
The Madrid system facilitates the registration process, and also saves the costs of filing and further maintaining the mark. The international application is based on a national application or on a national registration.  
Additional services granted by the trademark department:
Search services for similar or identical marks, pursuant to a written request and the payment of the necessary fees.
Independent search services, free of charge, utilizing the online trademark database through the trademark department's official website.
Production of official priority right and registration documents for use in courts of law.